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Referencing


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Academic Integrity


Referencing

Referencing


This final section of the Academic Integrity program concentrates on the skill of referencing properly.

Referencing is an integral part of academic integrity. It is the seventh element in the skills for academic integrity.

  • understanding academic integrity
  • note-making
  • quoting
  • paraphrasing
  • summarising
  • synthesising
  • referencing

This section will cover:

  • eight frequently asked questions about referencing – and provide you with answers to those questions,
  • examine five editing areas in relation to referencing, and
  • place referencing within the context of the bigger academic picture.

Referencing


Question 1: Do you cite sources in a PowerPoint presentation?

You should always cite or reference your sources in a PowerPoint.

How do you reference a PowerPoint?

When you give a PowerPoint presentation and include a quotation, paraphrase or summary, you will need to provide a reference to the original source. To do this you should follow the same guidelines for an in-text citation for a written text that you would normally use.

Referencing


Question 2: Do you reference an image?

You should always reference any images you include in your assignments or presentations.

How do you reference an image?

There are a number of ways to do this. The reference for this image has been made according to the Chicago referencing style. You will need to check with the referencing style that you are using. See Example 1.

When you change the appearance of the original image, you need to reference it according to your required referencing style. See Example 2.

[ Note: these examples use the Chicago referencing style and have been created for this program – details are fictitious ]

Referencing


Question 3: Do you need to reference everything?

You do not need to reference everything. There are at least four cases where you do not need to provide references.

When do you not reference?

You do not need to reference your own thoughts, arguments and ideas.

You do not need to (generally!) reference personal communications; but there are personal communications that can be referenced to give stronger support to your argument/thesis statement.

You do not need to reference work or facts that are so well known that they are generally accepted. Finally, you do not need to reference points that your lecturer has made during a lecture, unless specifically asked to do so.

In the latter case, you can look up the original source or you can reference as a secondary citation).

Referencing


Question 4: Can you number each reference list item?

Don’t be tempted to organise your reference notes according to your own scheme, such as numbering each list item.

Why? Only number each item if that is required by your referencing style guide. You must follow your referencing style guide very carefully!

The Vancouver referencing style, for example, numbers each entry.

Do not number your list entries, unless it is part of the referencing style.

Referencing


Question 5: Do you have to find the original source if you want to use a reference within another text?

Sometimes you will need to look up the original source, even if you first came across that source in the reference list or notes of another work.

When do you need to? If you only cite the source once, you can cite it as a text found within another text, by using a secondary source format. However, it is best to find and cite the original source if you refer to that author or work more than once in your assignment or if it is very important.

Note the referencing style for secondary sources: In-text and reference list.

Referencing


Question 6: Do you have to find include the page number?

Sometimes you will need to cite or reference the page number.

When do you need to? Always provide the page number for direct quotes (when it is available). Some referencing styles also like you to provide page numbers when you paraphrase, so check carefully to see what your style requires.

Note the referencing style for secondary sources: In-text and reference list.

Referencing


Question 7: If you cite an author more than once within a paragraph, do you need to repeat the author’s name?

Sometimes when you cite or reference an author more than once within a paragraph you may still need to repeat the author’s name.

When do you need to? If you include a number of direct quotes from an author, you should have the author’s surname, the year the work was published and the page number next to the quote each time.

If this is followed by another quote you must again cite all the details.

If followed by a paraphrase of the same author, then (depending on the referencing style), you can put just the page number/s.

It’s safest to cite the surname, year (and page number if available).

Referencing


Question 8: Do you use the ‘&’ instead of the word ‘and’?

Sometimes it is fine to use the ampersand (&) sign instead of the word ‘and’.

When do you use the ampersand? You should never use it if you are using the Chicago referencing style, or if your citation is authorial prominent (author first).

For example:

    Jones and Smith (2011, p. 158) state that…

You can use it in other referencing styles (such as APA) if your citation is information prominent (author/s placed after the quote or paraphrase).

For example:

    A number of variables effect a student’s reading ability (Jones & Smith, 2011, p. 95).

Referencing


Editing referencing: 5 areas to consider

The next parts of this program are the five areas you should consider when you are editing your referencing.

Edit area 1: In-text match to Reference list


Are all of your in-text citations listed in your reference list?

Make sure that any source that is cited in-text is also listed within the Reference list.

If you have a bibliography, rather than a reference list, then you can list citations that do not appear in-text, such as those you used as background or general reading.

Does the in-text match the reference list?

Always check carefully!

Edit area 2: Verb Tense Present tense


Choose your verb tense carefully when weaving the words of others into your writing.

You can use the simple present tense if you want to make the idea stronger or more vivid, even if the text was written many years ago.

For example:

    Shakespeare tells us that ‘Love’s not time’s fool’ (Sonnet 116).

Present tense makes the evidence/idea stronger – because it makes it contemporary and gives the impression that the idea is relevant and stands now.

For example:

    Patterson (1971) demonstrates that rote learning has a crucial role when combined with other forms of learning.

Edit area 2 (cont’d): Verb tense – however, choose the Past tense when…


You should use the past tense of a verb when you are talking about something that has already happened, or is a one-off finding, or when you disagree with the author.

  • Writing about a phenomena (something that happened)
  • When it’s a ‘one-off’ finding and not in accord with most accepted other viewpoints.
  • You disagree with the author.

Edit area 2 (cont’d): Verb tense – Blend of past and present verb tenses


Sometimes you may wish to use both past and present verb tenses to talk about other people’s ideas. This form can be useful when you are comparing different opinions on a common topic.

For example :

Although Ausubel (1964) stated that learning via memorisation is an exercise that brings about little learning, Patterson (1971) claims that rote learning has a crucial role when combined with other forms of learning.

Edit area 3: Authorial or Information prominent


Think carefully about how you want to construct your in-text references. If the information is more important than the author, or if you are using more than one source of evidence for a point, then choose the information prominent style.

For example:

  • One of the most important factors in good conversation techniques is knowing how to address the other (Kaye 1994, 94).
  • Stereotyping can lead to patronising, sexist labelling (Kaye 1994; Williams 2009).

This is where the point is made first and then the referencing details and author name/s are placed at the end of the sentence. Try to make this your most common manner of in-text referencing.

Edit area 3 (cont’d): Authorial or Information prominent


Choose to make in-text references in the authorial prominent style if the author is very important and should stand out – “if the seminal author says it, it must be good”.

For example

    Although Parsons (1981) strongly promotes methods of classroom discipline, Johnson (2008) gives clear evidence that “constructively managed controversy” has a positive effect on the learning that takes place in the classroom.

You can also use authorial prominent if their words or ideas are very different to those of others in their field, or if you want to contrast differing viewpoints.

Edit area 5: Formatting


Finally, don’t forget to check your formatting carefully. A separate page for referencing is usually required at the end of your work. The sub-title for your reference page should be formatted in the same manner as your other sub-headings. Don’t forget to include a listing and page numbers for your references in your contents page.

As a general rule, each entry within the reference page should be single spaced, with 1.5 or double spacing between each entry.

Each entry in the reference list should also be indented by three to four spaces after the first line.

The Bigger Picture


Referencing should always be woven carefully around your own words. Think about the sources you are using – why are you using them? How do they support your argument? What is the best way to include them? Taking all of these things into consideration will help your writing to flow smoothly and not jump abruptly from your words to someone else’s.

Referencing is NOT something you just add to your own writing:

It is an integral part of your Academic Writing.

For this to happen, your writing must FLOW.

Your writing will also flow when you have followed all of the other steps necessary for fluency and clarity: writing a sound thesis statement; making notes carefully; paraphrasing and quoting accurately; writing precise and relevant body paragraphs; and using your in-text references to support and supplement your ideas instead of overwhelming them.

Good luck!

Good Luck with your successful Academic writing!

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Text Version  Text version

This final section of the Academic Integrity Program concentrates on the skills of referencing properly. Referencing is an integral part of academic integrity. It is the seventh element in the skills for academic integrity.

  1. Understanding academic integrity
  2. Note-making
  3. Quoting
  4. Paraphrasing
  5. Summarising
  6. Synthesising
  7. Referencing

Overview:

  • This section will cover eight frequently asked questions about referencing – and provide you with answers to those questions.
  • It will also examine five editing areas in relation to referencing and place referencing within the context of the bigger academic picture.

Eight commonly asked questions about referencing – and their answers!

 

EditingReference

Editing referencing: 5 areas to consider

The next elements of this seminar are the five areas you should consider when you are editing your referencing.

 

The Bigger Picture

Referencing should always be woven carefully around your own words. Think about the sources you are using – why are you using them? How do they support your argument? What is the best way to include them? Taking all of these things into consideration will help your writing to flow smoothly and not jump abruptly from your words to someone else’s.

Referencing is NOT something you just add to your own writing: It is an integral part of your Academic Writing: For this to happen, your writing must FLOW.

Your writing will also flow when you have followed all of the other steps necessary for fluency and clarity: writing a sound thesis statement; making notes carefully; paraphrasing and quoting accurately; writing precise and relevant body paragraphs; and using your in-text references to support and supplement your ideas instead of overwhelming them.

— Good luck with your successful academic writing! —
 


PDF Version  PDF version

Follow the link to view the ‘Referencing’ pdf version.

 

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