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Understanding


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Academic Integrity


Understanding

Understanding


What is Academic Integrity?

Academic Integrity is the ethical use of other people’s ideas and work to support, comment upon or add to your own ideas.

Understanding


Academic Integrity is about being honest by making sure you always acknowledge the work of others.

It is also about being professional. In acknowledging the work of others through correct referencing, you are providing information to your readers about where that work came from.

This is useful for a number of reasons. For example, your readers may want to read more about that work. Your references show your reader how they can do that.

Understanding


A key aspect of Academic Integrity is the use of critical thinking.

Critical thinking is reading other sources and thinking carefully about them and how they relate to your ideas.

Your lecturer doesn’t just want to see that you have found the required information for an assignment. They also want to know that you have understood it, thought about it and know how it relates to your ideas. This is called critical thinking.

Demonstrating that you can do these tasks successfully is a part of Academic Integrity.

Understanding


Academic writing is different to other forms of writing or discourses. In other discourses, the words and ideas of others don’t always have to be acknowledged.

For example, a politician has a speech writer to write their speeches, but they don’t have to acknowledge that in the speech.

In Academic writing you always have to acknowledge when you have used or drawn upon the ideas and words of others.

Understanding


When talking about Academic Integrity you will often hear the following terms:

• Note-making
• Quoting
• Paraphrasing
• Summarising
• Synthesising
• Referencing
• Plagiarism

Jot down what you think each of these terms means in your own words.

This section of the program will provide brief introductions to those terms. In subsequent stages they will be each examined in more detail.

At the end of the program it may be useful to compare your new understanding of those terms with the definitions you provided at this stage.

Understanding


What is note-making?

Note-making is different to just note-taking. Note-making is thinking about the work of others and then creating short points on that work.

It is not just taking down notes automatically, without thinking about what you are writing down or why you are including that note.

It is capturing key points, facts, statistics, quotations or ideas from the work of others in a manner that is ordered and relates clearly to your needs such as the requirements of an assignment you are writing or an exam you are preparing for.

In this way, note-making requires your mind to be always engaged and thinking critically about what you are doing.

Don’t forget to always reference your notes!

Understanding


What is quoting?

Quoting is copying the exact words from another source into your work.

The words you have quoted must be identified by placing either double or single quotations marks at the beginning and end of the quote. Choice of single or double quotations depends on the referencing style. However, regardless of style, consistency is essential.








You must acknowledge the source!

Understanding


When and How to Quote

Quotations should never dominate or take over your work. One way to ensure this doesn’t happen is to always have a reason for including a quotation. For example, a quotation may be useful because it sharpens one of your points or allows you to point out something that an author intended in a direct way.

Quotations should be introduced with your words.

For example:

In Randolph Stow’s novel The Merry-Go-Round in the Sea, Geraldton is initially presented as being dilapidated and run-down: “He knew that he lived in a very old town, full of empty shops with dirty windows and houses with falling fences.” (1965, 5).

Once you have finished the quotation, try to comment further upon it. This will demonstrate that you have understood the quotation and can build upon it with ideas of your own.

For example:
Descriptions such as these help to build up a picture of Geraldton as a place that time has passed by.

Understanding


When you want to include a longer quotation you need to introduce it in a different way:

  • Leave a line after the end of your paragraph.
  • Indent and then insert the long quotation
  • Do not include quotation marks.
  • Leave another line and then begin a new paragraph in your own words.

For example, Randolph Stow builds up a picture of Geraldton as a fading, neglected place in his novel The Merry-Go-Round in the Sea:

The boy was not aware of living in a young country. He knew that he lived in a very old town, full of empty shops with dirty windows and houses with falling fences. He knew that he lived in an old, haunted land, where big stone flour-mills and stone farmhouses stood windowless and staring among twisted trees (1965, 5).

These images build up a picture of an ancient country and a town that time has passed by.

Understanding


What is paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing is also using the words and ideas of others in your assignment. Paraphrasing is different to quoting as you are not copying the words directly and exactly into your essay. Instead, you are putting others’ words into your own voice. You achieve this by restructuring sentences and paragraphs to fit your style and by replacing their words whenever possible with your own.

Why should you paraphrase?

Using paraphrasing is another means of not becoming too reliant on the voices of others, as it is a less obvious use of someone else’s work. Paraphrasing also requires you to think a little harder than simply quoting; it can show your lecturer that you understand the ideas more clearly. You must still reference properly and acknowledge the source of the ideas or words.

Understanding


What is summarising?

Summarising is extracting the main ideas from another source and then condensing them into a brief overview.

It should be much shorter than the original piece; otherwise, you are just copying the piece out and not summarising. Try to put others’ words into your own voice as much as possible. If you were explaining this idea to a friend or lecturer, how would you say it? What words would you use?

Just as you always acknowledge the source in note-making, quoting and paraphrasing, don’t forget to acknowledge it when you make a summary as well.

Understanding


How different do Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarising look?

How are quoting, paraphrasing and summarising different to one another?

First read the passage carefully:

Original:

Conflict refers to hostile or antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another. Conflict is natural and occurs in all teams and organizations. However, too much conflict can be destructive, tear relationships apart, and interfere with the healthy exchange of ideas and information needed for team development and cohesiveness (Koehler 1984, 121).

Understanding


This is a quotation from that passage. There are several places where you can place a quotation. It can be positioned within your paragraph at the beginning, middle or end.

Quote:

“Conflict refers to … antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the … goals of another” (Koehler 1984, 121).

Note that the writer has not used all the words from the quotation, but has left a few out. When you do this you need to place three dots in your quotation to indicate that you have left some words out. This is called an ellipsis and will be addressed in the Quoting section of this program.

Understanding


This is a paraphrase from the original piece of writing. It does not use the original words in an exact manner, but captures their meaning using different sentence structures and words.

Paraphrase:

It is important to remember that conflict (negative exchanges between people or groups) occurs in all group structures and is unavoidable. However, conflict can be damaging to group growth if found in excess (Koehler 1984, 121).

Even though you might use different words and structures to the original in paraphrasing, you still need to indicate that the ideas lying behind them came from someone else. Do this through careful referencing.

Understanding


A summary is often much shorter than a quote or paraphrase. It captures the main or general idea of the original statement.

Summary:

Although conflict occurs in all organisations, it can be damaging (Koehler 1984, 121).

Although a summary and a paraphrase are similar in the way you construct them, the main difference is that a summary is a brief restatement of the content, whereas a paraphrase is a precise restatement with comment and clarification of a specific part of the content of a passage.

Understanding


What is synthesising?

Synthesising is combining different aspects of your notes, paraphrases and summaries to produce a new meaning or emphasis.

For example, you might combine a quotation with some statistics to make a point stronger, or write about the similarities and differences between two points of view that came up in a lecture.

Synthesising combines information in new ways, to produce ideas you might not have noticed before.

When you synthesise, you can also draw facts together and then make a generalisation about these facts.

Once again, don’t forget to always acknowledge the source!

Understanding


Here is an example of a synthesis. The student has realised that Brown and Koehler hold the same views, so listed both of them after the point. This gives emphasis to the point, telling the reader that it is commonly held.

Synthesis:

Although conflict seems to be natural in all organisations, it can be detrimental to progress and growth of the organisation (Brown 2011; Koehler 1984).

Position authors in alphabetical order in parenthesis. Using more than one source gives strength to your argument.

Understanding


References

You may have heard the term ‘referencing styles’. Referencing styles provide a consistent set of rules for formatting in-text references, reference lists and bibliographies. Some disciplines have developed their own referencing styles. Psychology, for example, have their own style: the American Psychological Association (APA).

You need to find out which referencing style your school or discipline is using.

Understanding


Referencing is part of a much bigger picture.

When you work on an essay or report, you usually begin by choosing your topic. Then you might examine source texts. From these you could make notes, summaries or concept maps. After this you write up your assignment, but you always keep your original or stated topic in mind. This process is not always one-way, but can flow backwards and forwards depending on where you are up to or how you like to work. For example, you may write part of your essay and then take some more notes before writing the next section.

Referencing your sources clearly, thoroughly and accurately, in accordance with the referencing style guide supplied by your school or allocated to that assignment, is an important and essential part of this process.

For more details regarding this diagram, go to
Better Essays - Step 5: Write the middle paragraphs.

Understanding


So, what exactly is referencing?

Referencing is referring to another person or work from whom you have taken information for your assignment. When you do this you acknowledge that source as belonging to someone else. It is a professional and academic form of respect, as well as being honest about where the ideas came from.

Referencing can be done in several ways. You may reference works via in-text citations or footnotes. The work should also always be listed in the reference list or bibliography at the end of your work.

Understanding


Tips about referencing format - the little things count too!

Here are some tips for accurate referencing:

  • The reference list should be the last page of your assignment, unless you have an appendix.
  • The reference list should always have a separate page of its own.
  • Keep fonts consistent in your work. Type your References sub-heading in the same font you used for all of your sub-headings.
  • The reference list is almost always written in alphabetical order. One exception to this rule is the Vancouver referencing style. This lists books and items in the reference list according to their order of appearance in your work.

Understanding


Plagiarism

Plagiarising is stealing the work of others. You do this by writing down the ideas or thoughts of others and then not acknowledging them through correct referencing. This makes it look like the ideas were created by you.

Plagiarising is a very serious offence at all universities and academic environments, but can be avoided by learning to always reference properly.

Understanding


What is Plagiarising?

Plagiarising can take a number of forms. It can include:

  • copying sentences without acknowledging the source,
  • using another person’s work without acknowledgement, or
  • too closely paraphrasing.

When you submit work written by someone else and call it your own, that is plagiarising.

Plagiarism also occurs when you have worked in a group and do not provide accurate and honest information about what each person contributed.

(Source: http://academicintegrity.curtin.edu.au/global/
studentbook.cfm)

Understanding


Self-plagiarism: How can you steal from yourself?

Self-plagiarism is also a breach of academic integrity. Self-plagiarism occurs when you submit essays or work that you have already handed in on an earlier course for another course, as if it is completely new and you have written it for the first time.

You can refer to earlier work in later assignments, but you need to make it clear that those sections of the work had been written by you previously. You need to reference yourself!

If you are a post-graduate student, self-plagiarism can also occur when you submit a paper that you have already had published to the editors of another journal, as if it has never been published before.

Understanding


“Knowledge is Power” (Sir Francis Bacon 1597)

Once you know how to apply correct academic integrity principles, you can empower yourself to be a better student, researcher or writer.

You can do this by learning the rules and practising the skills and by knowing your rights and the rights of other authors.

(Source: http://www.iep.utm.edu/bacon/)



Empower yourself by ensuring you:

  • Know the rules
  • Know the skills
  • Know the author’s rights
  • Know your rights

Understanding


Test your understanding of this part of the program.

List ten points that you remember from this section of Understanding Academic Integrity. These points could relate to what you think Academic Integrity is, or topics such as paraphrasing or referencing.

Now compare these points to the notes you jotted down earlier on Academic Integrity. What have you learnt that you did not know before? Do any points seem particularly important?

My understanding of Academic Integrity











This is the end of this section of the program. The next section will examine the skill of note-making.

Enjoy your reading!

Understanding


There are several other websites and links within the university that can provide related help on Academic Integrity. The library has a referencing guide and Endnote. Endnote is a very useful tool to help you with your referencing.

You can check on Curtin’s rules and guidelines in regard to issues such as plagiarism at the academic integrity page, and on the Curtin policy page.

Find out more about your rights and services available to you through the guild and counselling services.

And finally, The Learning Centre has extensive information relating to referencing, writing and academic integrity on its webpage.

Useful Links

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Text Version  Text version

Academic Integrity is the ethical use of other people’s ideas and work to support,comment upon or add to your own ideas.

understanding
Academic Integrity is about being honest by making sure you always acknowledge the work of others. It is also about being professional. In acknowledging the work of others through correct referencing, you are providing information to your readers about where that work came from. This is useful for a number of reasons. For example, your readers may want to read more about that work. Your references show your reader how they can do that.

Critical Thinking

A key aspect of Academic Integrity is the use of critical thinking.

Critical thinking is reading other sources and thinking carefully about them and how they relate to your ideas.

Your lecturer doesn’t just want to see that you have found the required information for an assignment. They also want to know that you have understood it, thought about it and know how it relates to your ideas. This is called critical thinking.

Demonstrating that you can do these tasks successfully is a part of Academic Integrity.

Academic Writing V Other Writing

Academicwritingvotherwriting

Academic writing is different to other forms of writing or discourses.

In other discourses, the words and ideas of others don’t always have to be acknowledged. For example, a politician has a speech writer to write their speeches, but they don’t have to acknowledge that in the speech.

In Academic writing you always have to acknowledge when you have used or drawn upon the ideas and words of others.

Academic Integrity: Key Terms

When talking about Academic Integrity you will often hear the following terms:

  • Note-making
  • Quoting
  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarising
  • Synthesising
  • Referencing
  • Plagiarism

Jot down what you think each of these terms means in your own words.

This section of the program will provide brief introductions to those terms. In subsequent stages they will be each examined in more detail.

At the end of the program it may be useful to compare your new understanding of those terms with the definitions you provided at this stage.

How different do Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarising look?

How are quoting, paraphrasing and summarising different to one another? First read the passage carefully:

Original:
Conflict refers to hostile or antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another. Conflict is natural and occurs in all teams and organizations. However, too much conflict can be destructive, tear relationships apart, and interfere with the healthy exchange of ideas and information needed for team development and cohesiveness (Koehler 1984, 121).

This is a quotation from that passage. There are several places where you can place a quotation. It can be positioned within your paragraph at the beginning, middle or end.

Quote:
“Conflict refers to … antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the … goals of another” (Koehler 1984, 121).

Note that the writer has not used all the words from the quotation, but has left a few out. When you do this you need to place three dots in your quotation to indicate that you have left some words out. This is called ellipsis and will be addressed in the Quoting section of this program.

Paraphrase

Original:
Conflict refers to hostile or antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another. Conflict is natural and occurs in all teams and organizations. However, too much conflict can be destructive, tear relationships apart, and interfere with the healthy exchange of ideas and information needed for team development and cohesiveness (Koehler 1984, 121).

This is a paraphrase from the original piece of writing. It does not use the original words in an exact manner, but captures their meaning using different sentence structures and words.

Paraphrase:
It is important to remember that conflict (negative exchanges between people or groups) occurs in all group structures and is unavoidable. However conflict can be damaging to group growth if found in excess (Koehler 1984, 121).

Even though you might use different words and structures to the original in paraphrasing, you still need to indicate that the ideas lying behind them came from someone else. Do this through careful referencing.

Summary

A summary is often much shorter than a quote or paraphrase. It captures the main or general idea of the original statement. Although a summary and a paraphrase are similar in the way you construct them, the main difference is that a summary is a brief restatement of the content, whereas a paraphrase is a precise restatement with comment and clarification of a specific part of the content of a passage.

Summary:
Although conflict occurs in all organisations, it can be damaging (Koehler 1984, 121).

“Knowledge is Power” (Sir Francis Bacon 1597)

Sir-francis

Once you know how to apply correct academic integrity principles, you can empower yourself to be a better student, researcher or writer.

You can do this by learning the rules and practising the skills and by knowing your rights and the rights of other authors.

My understanding of Academic Integrity

img1

Test your understanding of this part of the program.

List ten points that you remember from this section of Understanding Academic Integrity. These points could relate to what you think Academic Integrity is, or topics such as paraphrasing or referencing.

Now compare these points to the notes you jotted down earlier on Academic Integrity. What have you learnt that you did not know before? Do any points seem particularly important?

This is the end of this section of the program. The next section will examine the skill of note- making.

Enjoy your reading!

Useful Links

There are several other websites and links within the university that can provide related help on Academic Integrity. The library has a referencing guide and Endnote. Endnote is a very useful tool to help you with your referencing.

You can check on Curtin’s rules and guidelines in regard to issues such as plagiarism at the academic integrity page, and on the Curtin policy page.

Find out more about your rights and services available to you through the guild and counselling services.

 


PDF Version  PDF version

Follow the link to view the ‘Understanding’ pdf version.

 

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