This final section of the Academic Integrity Program concentrates on the skills of referencing properly. Referencing is an integral part of academic integrity. It is the seventh element in the skills for academic integrity.
- Understanding academic integrity
- This section will cover eight frequently asked questions about referencing and provide you with answers to those questions.
- It will also examine five editing areas in relation to referencing and place referencing within the context of the bigger academic picture.
Eight commonly asked questions about referencing – and their answers!
Do you cite sources in a PowerPoint presentation?
Question A : Do you cite sources in a PowerPoint presentation?
Answer : YES – You should always cite or reference your sources in a PowerPoint presentation.
Question B : How?
Answer : Reference as an in-text citation of written text.
When you give a PowerPoint presentation and include a quotation, paraphrase or summary, you will need to provide a reference to the original source. To do this you should follow the same guidelines for an in-text citation for a written text that you would normally use.
Do you reference an image?
Question A : Do you reference an image?
Answer : YES – You should always reference any images you include in your assignments or presentations.
Question B : How?
Answer : Reference according to your referencing style. There are a number of ways to reference an image.
Figure 1: John Smith, 1999, Ordered Chaos, watercolour, 75mmx75mm.
Answer : Reference according to your referencing style. When you change the appearance of the original image, you need to reference it in this way.
Figure 1: Adapted from John Smith, 1999, Ordered Chaos, watercolour, 75mmx75mm.
Note: the above examples use Chicago style and have been created for this program – details are fictitious.
What to and what not to reference?
Question A : Do you need to reference everything?
Answer : NO – You do not need to reference everything.
Question B : When do you not reference?
Answer : There are at least four cases where you do not need to provide references.
- When you are writing your own thoughts, ideas, insights, opinions, and conclusions.
- Personal communication (but there are personal communications that can be referenced to give stronger support to your argument/thesis statement – such as communication from a supervisor during a professional prac.)
- Work that is so well known it can be readily sourced – generally accepted facts.
- Lecturer material (unless requested by lecturer to cite or lecturer has cited an author. In the latter case, you can look up the original source or you can reference as a secondary citation).
Can you number each reference list item?
Question A : Can you number reference list items?
Answer : NO – Don’t be tempted to organise your reference notes according to your own scheme, such as numbering each list item.
Question B : Why?
Answer : You must follow your referencing style guide accurately! Only number each item if that is required by your referencing style guide.
Vancouver referencing style, for example, numbers each entry. Do not number your list entries, unless it’s part of the referencing style.
Do you have to find the original source if you want to use a reference within another text?
Question A : Do you have to find the original if you want to use a reference within another text?
Answer : SOMETIMES. Sometimes you will need to look up the original source, even if you first came across that source in the reference list or notes of another work.
Question B : When do you need to?
Answer : You cite a reference within the text of another by using a secondary source format.
Answer : If you only cite the source once, you can cite it as a text found within another text, by using a secondary source format; particularly if it’s very important and gives strong evidence to your argument.
However, it is best to find and cite the original source if you refer to that author or work more than once in your assignment or if it is very important.
Do you have to include the page number?
Question A : Do you have to include the page number?
Answer : SOMETIMES. Sometimes you will need to cite or reference the page number.
Question B : When do you need to?
Answer : Always provide the page number for direct quotes (when it is available). Some referencing styles also like you to provide page numbers when you paraphrase, so check carefully to see what your style requires.
If you cite an author more than once within a paragraph, do you need to repeat the author’s name?
Question A : If you cite an author more than once within a paragraph, do you need to repeat the author’s name?
Answer : SOMETIMES. Sometimes when you cite or reference an author more than once within a paragraph you may still need to repeat the author’s name.
Question B : When do you need to?
Answer : If you include a number of direct quotes from an author, you should have the author’s surname, the year the work was published and the page number next to the quote each time. If this is followed by another quote you must again cite all the details.
If followed by a paraphrase of the same author, then (depending on the referencing style), you can put just the page number/s.
It is safest to cite the surname, year (and page number if available).
Do you use the ‘&’ instead of ‘and’?
Question A : Do you use the ‘&’ instead of the word ‘and’?
Answer : SOMETIMES. Sometimes it is acceptable to use the ampersand (&) sign instead of the word ‘and’.
Question B : When do you use the ampersand?
Answer : You should never use it if you are using the Chicago referencing style, or if your citation is authorial prominent (author first). For example:
Jones and Smith (2011, 158) state that…
You can use it in other referencing styles if your citation is information prominent (author/s placed after the quote or paraphrase).
A number of variables effect a student’s reading ability (Jones & Smith, p. 95).
Always check with your referencing style guide.
Editing referencing: 5 areas to consider
The next elements of this seminar are the five areas you should consider when you are editing your referencing.
In-text citations matched to reference list
Are all of your in-text citations listed in your reference list?
Make sure that any source that is cited in-text is also listed within the reference list.
If you have a bibliography, rather than a reference list, then you can list citations that do not appear in- text, such as those you used as background or general reading.
Always check carefully!
Choose your verb tense carefully when weaving the words of others into your writing.
You can use the simple present tense if you want to make the idea stronger or more vivid, even if the text was written may years ago. For example:
- Shakespeare tells us that ‘Love’s not time’s fool’ (Sonnet 116)
Present tense makes the evidence/idea stronger because it makes it contemporary and gives the impression that the idea is relevant and stands now.
Patterson (1971) demonstrates that rote learning has a crucial role when combined with other forms of learning.
You should use the past tense of a verb when you:
- Are talking about a phenomena (something that has already happened),
- Disagree with the author
- Are discussing a one-off finding and not in accord with most accepted other viewpoints.
Sometimes you may wish to use both past and present verb tenses to talk about other people’s ideas.
This form can be useful when you are comparing different opinions on a common topic.
Although Ausubel (1964) stated that learning via memorisation is an exercise that brings about little learning, Patterson (1971) claims that rote learning has a crucial role when combined with other forms of learning.
Authorial or information prominent
Think carefully about how you want to construct your in-text references.
If the information is more important than the author, or if you are using more than one source of evidence for a point, then choose the information prominent style. For example:
- One of the most important factors in good conversation techniques is knowing how to address the other (Kaye 1994, 94).
- Stereotyping can lead to patronising, sexist labelling (Kaye 1994; Williams 2009).
This is where the point is made first and then the referencing details and author name/s are placed at the end of the sentence.
- Try to make this your most common manner of in-text referencing.
Choose to make in-text references in the authorial prominent style if the author is very important and should stand out – “if the seminal author says it, it must be good.” For example:
- Although Parsons (1981) strongly promotes methods of classroom discipline, Johnson (2008) gives clear evidence that “constructively managed controversy” has a positive effect on the learning that takes place in the classroom.
You can also use authorial prominent if their words or ideas are very different to those of others in their field, or if you want to contrast differing viewpoints.
Quote or paraphrase
Another consideration when referencing and using other sources is whether to quote or paraphrase.
Try not to be over-reliant on quotations, as they can take away from your voice and ideas. Could you change any of your quotes into paraphrases?
- Check your quotations!
- Are there too many? (Remember about 5% of total word count).
Finally, don’t forget to check your formatting carefully.
- A separate page for referencing is usually required at the end of your work.
- The subtitle for your reference page should be formatted in the same manner as your other subheadings.
- Don’t forget to include a listing and page numbers for your references in your contents page.
- As a general rule, each entry within the reference page should be single spaced, with 1.5 or double spacing between each entry.
- Each entry in the reference list should also be indented by three to four spaces after the first line.
The Bigger Picture
Referencing should always be woven carefully around your own words. Think about the sources you are using – why are you using them? How do they support your argument? What is the best way to include them? Taking all of these things into consideration will help your writing to flow smoothly and not jump abruptly from your words to someone else’s.
Referencing is NOT something you just add to your own writing: It is an integral part of your Academic Writing: For this to happen, your writing must FLOW.
Your writing will also flow when you have followed all of the other steps necessary for fluency and clarity: writing a sound thesis statement; making notes carefully; paraphrasing and quoting accurately; writing precise and relevant body paragraphs; and using your in-text references to support and supplement your ideas instead of overwhelming them.
Follow the link to view the ‘Referencing’ pdf version.
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