5.6: Validity in deductive arguments
In a nutshell
The following presents what you essentially need to know about this topic.
In a nutshell - Text version
- A deductive argument has a form whereby if the premises are true, it is impossible for the conclusion to be false.
- Two important kinds of deductive argument are known as ‘categorical’ and ‘hypothetical’ arguments.
- Categorical deductive arguments are comprised of categorical statements.
- Categorical arguments demonstrate the extent to which members of one category can be said to belong to another category.
- Some key terms in categorical logic are “all” “some” “are” “are not”.
- Hypothetical deductive arguments are comprised of hypothetical or ‘conditional’ statements using the ‘if …then’ structure.
- In hypothetical deductive arguments, each statement has two parts: an antecedent (what comes before) comprising the first part; and a consequent (what comes after) comprising the second part.
- In such arguments, if the antecedent is affirmed OR the consequent is denied the argument is considered valid.
- If the opposite is the case (i.e. the antecedent is denied, or the consequent is affirmed) the argument is considered formally fallacious, and thus invalid.
- If you want more information about this topic, refer to ‘The complete’ version below.
The complete version
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