Activity One
Scientific Reports: Introductions


Of the two examples below, which introduction best suits the style of a scientific report?
(i) Example 1:

Introduction


There is a growing body of research focusing on the design of the flipped classroom. This design builds on a particular “blend” of e-learning and traditional face-to-face teaching. Although there is an increasing amount of literature about blending these modalities, research rarely addresses the precise nature of these “blends” and how different “blends” could have a differential impact on students’ learning performance. Moreover, most research contrasts only one particular blend with online and/or traditional learning. FC approaches are a special type of blended learning, whereby students are presented with web-based (online) lectures prior to classroom sessions. Many authors stress how FC fosters student engagement, resulting in better learning outcomes. Research indicates that FC helps to students learn at their own pace and in their own time, spend more time in preparatory work, and get more involved during classroom activities. In this study, we are comparing the learning performance of students studying in a FC setting with a few other instructional settings: a Blended Learning setting, a traditional setting, and an E-Learning setting. In the FC setting, lectures were given in an online environment and then after that exercises were given by means of guiding questions. The guiding questions had to be solved individually in a traditional classroom setting. In the BL setting, lectures were given in a traditional classroom setting and then after that the same exercises were given in an online environment. In the TL setting, both the lectures and the exercises that followed were given in a traditional classroom setting. Finally, in the EL setting, both the lectures and exercises were given in an online setting.
(ii) Example 2:

1. Introduction


There is a growing body of research focusing on the flipped classroom (FC) design. This design builds on a particular “blend” of e-learning and traditional face-to-face teaching. Although there is an increasing amount of literature about blending these modalities (see e.g., Bliuc et al., 2007, Garrison and Kanuka, 2004, Owston et al., 2013, Vaughan and Garrison, 2005 and Zacharis, 2015), research rarely addresses the precise nature of these “blends” and how different “blends” could have a differential impact on students’ learning performance. Moreover, most research contrasts only one particular blend with online and/or traditional learning (see e.g., Ashby, Sadera, & McNary, 2011). FC approaches are a special type of blended learning (BL), whereby students are presented with web-based lectures prior to classroom sessions. Many authors stress how flipped classroom fosters student engagement, resulting in better learning outcomes (Gilboy et al., 2015 and Tune et al., 2013). Research indicates that FC helps to students learn at their own pace, spend more time in preparatory work, and get more involved during classroom activities (Johnson, 2013, Kong, 2014 and Roach, 2014). In this study, we compared the learning performance of students studying in a FC setting with three other instructional settings: (1) a Blended Learning (BL) setting, (2) a traditional (TL) setting, and (3) an E-Learning (EL) setting. In the FC setting, lectures were given in an online environment and subsequently exercises were given by means of guiding questions. The guiding questions had to be solved individually in a traditional classroom setting. In the BL setting, lectures were given in a traditional classroom setting and subsequently the same exercises were given in an online environment. In the TL setting, both the lectures and subsequent exercises were given in a traditional classroom setting. Finally, in the EL setting, both the lectures and exercises were given in an online setting.



These examples were adapted from: Thai, Ngoc Thuy Thi, Bram De Wever, and Martin Valcke. 2017. “The Impact of A Flipped Classroom Design on Learning Performance in Higher Education: Looking for the Best “Blend” Of Lectures and Guiding Questions With Feedback.” Computers & Education 107: 113-126.
doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.01.003
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131517300039


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